The introduction of the V-1 and V-2 "vengeance weapons" was emphasized to convince Britons of the hopelessness of defeating Germany. Problems in propaganda arose easily in this stage; expectations of success were raised too high and too quickly, which required explanation if they were not fulfilled, and blunted the effects of success, and the hushing of blunders and failures caused mistrust.
On 23 June , the Nazis permitted the Red Cross to visit the concentration camp Theresienstadt to dispel rumors about the Final Solution , which was intended to kill all Jews. In reality, Theresienstadt was a transit camp for Jews en route to extermination camps. The hoax was so successful for the Nazis that they went on to make a propaganda film Theresienstadt. Shooting of the film began on 26 February Directed by Kurt Gerron , it was meant to show how well the Jews lived under the "benevolent" protection of the Third Reich.
After the shooting, most of the cast, and even the filmmaker himself, were deported to the concentration camp of Auschwitz where they were murdered. Hans Fritzsche , who had been head of the Radio Chamber, was tried and acquitted by the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal. Anti-semitic wartime propaganda served a variety of purposes.
It was hoped that people in Allied countries would be persuaded that Jews should be blamed for the war. The Nazis also wished to ensure that German people were aware of the extreme measures being carried out against the Jews on their behalf, in order to incriminate them and thus guarantee their continued loyalty through fear by Nazi-conjectured scenarios of supposed post-war "Jewish" reprisals. Germans were fed the knowledge that too many atrocities had been committed, especially against the Jews, to allow for an understanding to be reached with the Allies.
The Nazis and sympathizers published many books. Most of the beliefs that would become associated with the Nazis, such as German nationalism, eugenics and anti-Semitism had been in circulation since the 19th century, and the Nazis seized on this body of existing work in their own publications.
The most notable is Adolf Hitler 's Mein Kampf detailing his beliefs. A Study of the Popular Mind , which theorized propaganda as a way to control the seemingly irrational behaviour of crowds. Particularly prominent is the violent anti-Semitism of Hitler and his associates, drawing, among other sources, on the fabricated " Protocols of the Elders of Zion " , which implied that Jews secretly conspired to rule the world. This book was a key source of propaganda for the Nazis and helped fuel their common hatred against the Jews during World War II.
These books were used as texts in German schools during the Nazi era. The pre-existing and popular genre of Schollen-roman , or novel of the soil, also known as blood and soil novels,  was given a boost by the acceptability of its themes to the Nazis and developed a mysticism of unity.
The immensely popular "Red Indian" stories by Karl May were permitted despite the heroic treatment of the hero Winnetou and "colored" races; instead, the argument was made that the stories demonstrated the fall of the Red Indians was caused by a lack of racial consciousness, to encourage it in the Germans. Children's books also made their appearance. In , Julius Streicher published Der Giftpilz The Poisonous Mushroom , a storybook that equated the Jewish people to poisonous mushrooms and aimed to educate children about the Jews.
The book was an example of anti-Semitic propaganda and stated that, "The following tales tell the truth about the Jewish poison mushroom. They show the many shapes the Jew assumes. They show the depravity and baseness of the Jewish race.
They show the Jew for what he really is: The Devil in human form. Maps showing the racial composition of Europe were banned from the classroom after many efforts that did not define the territory widely enough for party officials.
Even fairy tales were put to use, with Cinderella being presented as a tale of how the prince's racial instincts lead him to reject the stepmother's alien blood present in her daughters for the racially pure maiden.
Literature was to be chosen within the "German spirit" rather than a fixed list of forbidden and required, which made the teachers all the more cautious  although Jewish authors were impossible for classrooms. Biology texts, however, were put to the most use in presenting eugenic principles and racial theories; this included explanations of the Nuremberg Laws , which were claimed to allow the German and Jewish peoples to co-exist without the danger of mixing.
Teachers' guidelines on racial instruction presented both the handicapped and Jews as dangers. In occupied France, the German Institute encouraged translation of German works although chiefly German nationalists, not ardent Nazis, produced a massive increase in the sale of translated works.
The Nazis produced many films to promote their views, using the party's Department of Film for organizing film propaganda. The department controlled the licensing of every film prior to its production. Sometimes the government selected the actors for a film, financed the production partially or totally, and granted tax breaks to the producers. Awards for "valuable" films would decrease taxes, thus encouraging self-censorship among movie makers. Under Goebbels and Hitler, the German film industry became entirely nationalised.
The National Socialist Propaganda Directorate, which Goebbels oversaw, had at its disposal nearly all film agencies in Germany by Occasionally, certain directors such as Wolfgang Liebeneiner were able to bypass Goebbels by providing him with a different version of the film than would be released. Schools were also provided with motion picture projectors because film was regarded as particularly appropriate for propagandizing children.
Triumph of the Will features footage of uniformed party members though relatively few German soldiers , who are marching and drilling to militaristic tunes. The film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including Adolf Hitler.
Frank Capra used scenes from the film, which he described partially as "the ominous prelude of Hitler's holocaust of hate", in many parts of the United States government's Why We Fight anti-Axis seven film series, to demonstrate what the personnel of the American military would be facing in World War II, and why the Axis had to be defeated.
The movie is done in the style of a documentary, the central thesis being the immutable racial personality traits that characterize the Jew as a wandering cultural parasite. Throughout the film, these traits are contrasted to the Nazi state ideal: A main medium was Die Deutsche Wochenschau , a newsreel series produced for cinemas, from Newsreels were explicitly intended to portray German interests as successful. By Nazi standards, fine art was not propaganda. Its purpose was to create ideals, for eternity.
Sculpture was used as an expression of Nazi racial theories. Landscape painting featured mostly heavily in the Greater German Art exhibition,  in accordance with themes of blood and soil.
The continuing of the German Art Exhibition throughout the war was put forth as a manifestation of German's culture. In and after , the Zeitschriften-Dienst was sent to magazines to provide guidelines on what to write for appropriate topics. Neues Volk was a monthly publication of the Office of Racial Policy , which answered questions about acceptable race relations. Der Pimpf was aimed at boys, and contained both adventure and propaganda. Signal was a propaganda magazine published by the Wehrmacht during World War II  and distributed throughout occupied Europe and neutral countries.
Published from April to March , "Signal" had the highest sales of any magazine published in Europe during the period—circulation peaked at 2. At various times, it was published in at least twenty languages. The promoter of the magazine was the chief of the Wehrmacht propaganda office, Colonel Hasso von Wedel. The image that Signal transmitted was that of Nazi Germany and its New Order as the great benefactor of European peoples and of Western civilization in general.
The danger of a Soviet invasion of Europe was strongly pointed out. The quality of the magazine itself was quite high, featuring complete reviews from the front lines rich in information and photos, even displaying a double center-page full-colour picture. In fact, many of the most famous Second World War photos that are to be seen today come from Signal. The magazine contained little to no anti-Semitic propaganda, as the contents were mainly military.
It disseminated Nazi ideology in the form of brief hyperboles directed against the weakness of parliamentarism , the evils of Jewry and Bolshevism, the national humiliation of the Versailles Treaty and other such topics.
It was mainly dedicated to attacks against political opponents and Jews — one of its most striking features were vehemently antisemitic cartoons by Hans Schweitzer — but also engaged in the glorification of Nazi heroes such as Horst Wessel. After Hitler's rise to power in , all of the regular press came under complete Nazi editorial control through the policy of Gleichschaltung , and short-lived propaganda newspapers were also established in the conquered territories during World War II.
Alfred Rosenberg was a key member of the Nazi party who gained control of their newspaper which was openly praised by Hitler. However, Hitler was dissatisfied by Rosenberg's work and slandered Rosenberg behind his back, discrediting his work.
In Ukraine, after Nazis cracked down on the papers, most papers printed only articles from German agencies, producing the odd effect of more anti-American and anti-British articles than anti-Communist ones. The Nazis used photographers to document events and promote ideology. Photographers included Heinrich Hoffmann and Hugo Jaeger. Hoffmann worked in his father's photographic shop and as a photographer in Munich from After Hitler took over the party in , he named Hoffmann as his official photographer, a post he held for over a quarter-century.
A photograph taken by Hoffmann in Munich's Odeonsplatz on 2 August show a young Hitler among the crowds cheering the outbreak of World War I and was used in Nazi propaganda. Hitler and Hoffmann became close friends—in fact, when Hitler became the ruler of Germany, Hoffmann was the only man authorized to take official photographs of him. Hoffmann's photographs were published as postage stamps, postcards, posters and picture books.
Following Hoffmann's suggestion, both he and Hitler received royalties from all uses of Hitler's image even on postage stamps , which made Hoffmann a millionaire.
In he was elected to the Reichstag and in Hitler appointed him a 'Professor'. Nine photographs taken by Hoffman reveal how Hitler rehearsed poses and his hand gestures. He asked Hoffmann to take pictures so that he could see how he looked while speaking. Poster art was a mainstay of the Nazi propaganda effort, aimed both at Germany itself and occupied territories.
It had several advantages. The visual effect, being striking, would reach the viewer easily. Imagery frequently drew on heroic realism. The first edition was distributed on 16 March Every week an estimated , posters were administered to the public from to The posters set out to educate and unify the German people before and especially during World War II. The posters were placed in train cars, buses, platforms, ticket windows — anywhere there was dense traffic flow. Very few individuals, at the time, owned a car, most biked, walked, or used public transportation daily.
Exposure to the Word of the Week posters was high in German cites. The messages and Nazi ideologies "stared out at the mass public for a week at a time in tens of thousands of places German pedestrians were likely to pass in the course of a day".
Jeffery Herf , author of The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust , described the poster campaign as a "combination of newspaper editorial, political leaflet, political poster, and tabloid journalism". The text was big so that several people could read it at the same time and from a distance of a few feet.
During the time period when anti-Semitic articles decreased in publications, the anti-Semitic rhetoric was ramped up in The Word of the Week posters. Images often showed a Jewish figure positioned behind, or above, symbols of economic and political influence. Posters were also used in schools, depicting, for instance, an institution for the feeble-minded on one hand and houses on the other, to inform the students that the annual cost of this institution would build 17 homes for healthy families.
Before Hitler came to power, he rarely used radio to connect with the public, and when he did so non-party newspapers were allowed to publish his speeches. Hitler's speeches became widely broadcast all over Germany, especially on the radio, itself introduced by the Ministry of Propaganda. They were shown in weekly newsreels, and reprinted in large editions in books and pamphlets all across Germany.
Nazi propaganda also used radio as an important tool to promote genocide. In private homes, however, people could easily turn off the radio when bored and did so once the novelty of hearing the voice from a box wore off; this caused the Nazis to introduce many non-propaganda elements, such as music, advice and tips, serials and other entertainment. As well as domestic broadcasts, the Nazi regime used radio to deliver its message to both occupied territories and enemy states.
Joyce first appeared on German radio on 6 September reading the news in English but soon became noted for his often mischievous propaganda broadcasts. Best, a freelance journalist based in Vienna , was initially arrested following the German declaration of war on the US but before long he became a feature on propaganda radio, attacking the influence of the Jews in the US and the leadership of Franklin Delano Roosevelt ,  who succeeded Winston Churchill in Nazi propaganda as "World-Enemy Number One".
Gillars, a teacher in Germany, mostly broadcast on similar themes as well as peppering her speech with allegations of infidelity against the wives of servicemen. Her most notorious broadcast was the 'Vision of Invasion' radio play, broadcast immediately prior to D-Day , from the perspective of an American mother who dreamed that her soldier son died violently in Normandy.
France also received broadcasts from Radio-Stuttgart, where Paul Ferdonnet , an anti-Semitic journalist, was the main voice during the Phoney War. Domestic broadcasters were also used to galvanise support for occupation in Belgium , where Ward Hermans regularly spoke in support of the Nazis from his base in Bremen ,  and the Italian Social Republic , to where Giovanni Preziosi broadcast a vehemently anti-Semitic show from his base in Munich.
They recast Nazi racist ideology to target Jews alone, not all Semites. Downplaying Mussolini's operations in Africa, they touted the anti-colonialism of the Axis powers.
The Nazi party relied heavily on speakers to make its propaganda presentations, most heavily before they came to power, but also afterwards. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , recounted that he had realized that it was not written matter but the spoken word that brought about changes, as people would not read things that disagreed, but would linger to hear a speaker.
Such speakers were particularly important when it was not wanted that the information put across not reach foreigners, who could access the mass media. Sturmabteilung speakers were used, though their reliance on instinct sometimes offended well-educated audiences, but their blunt and folksy manner often had its own appeal.
The ministry would provide such speakers with information, such as how to spin the problems on the eastern front,  or how to discuss the cuts in food rations.
Specific groups were targeted with such speakers. Speakers, for instance, were created specifically for Hitler Youth. Speakers often addressed political or military rallies, which were well-orchestrated events with banners and marching bands. Nazi propaganda promoted Nazi ideology by demonizing the enemies of the Nazi Party, especially Jews and communists, but also capitalists and intellectuals. The campaign against Jews was especially intensive, and was a direct result of Hitler 's influence on Nazi policy.
Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions. Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article.
Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: In its intense nationalism, mass appeal, and dictatorial rule, Nazism shared many elements with Italian fascism. However, Nazism was far more extreme both in its ideas….
Berlin, capital and chief urban centre of Germany. The city lies at the heart of the North German Plain, athwart an east-west commercial and geographic axis that helped make it the capital of the kingdom of Prussia and then, from , of a unified Germany. Help us improve this article!
Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.
Nazi newspapers predictably did well after January The official newspaper of the Third Reich was the ‘Vőlkischer Beobachter’, which was edited by Alfred Rosenberg who was considered to be the Nazi Party’s primary intellectual. Joseph Goebbels had his own newspaper, ‘Der Angriff’.
Der Stürmer, a Nazi propaganda newspaper, told Germans that Jews kidnapped small children before Passover because "Jews need the blood of a Christian child, maybe, to mix in with their Matzah." Posters, films, cartoons, and fliers were seen throughout Germany which attacked the Jewish community.
Nazi Propaganda Newspaper An issue of the antisemitic propaganda newspaper Der Stürmer (The Attacker) is posted on the sidewalk in Worms, Germany, in The headline above the case says, "The Jews Are Our Misfortune.". Propaganda in newspapers was an easy way of spreading news to society. Some were enforcing the government and the Nazis. Some newspapers encouraged people to .
Unlike the Völkischer Beobachter (The Völkisch Observer), the official party paper which gave itself an outwardly serious appearance, Der Stürmer often ran material such as caricatures of Jews and accusations of blood libel, as well as sexually explicit, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist, and anti-monarchist propaganda. Der Stuermer ("The Attacker") was the Nazi's antisemitic, weekly newspaper that was founded and created by Julius Streicher and was published from April 20, , until .